Studies in Psalm 119                                                                                                                                     Arranged by Jack Kettler


This Psalm was probably composed by Ezra, although commentator, Matthew Poole believes David is the author.1 The aim of this Psalm is to promote the excellencies of God's laws, and the blessedness of those who abide by them.

Psalm 119 is organized in a structure known as an alphabetic acrostic. There are 22 letters in the Hebrew alphabet. Psalm 119 contains 22 sections with 8 verses each. Each of the 22 sections is set to a letter of the Hebrew alphabet and each line of that section begins with that letter. This pattern proceeds until all 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet have been used. If you look at the actual Hebrew text you can see this. Unfortunately, we often miss this in the English translations.

To demonstrate the idea of the alphabetical arranging of the Psalm, look at the following literal rendering of the Hebrew prepared by Pastor Theodore Kubler of Islington England in 1880:


1: All they that are undefiled in the way, walking in the law of the Lord, are blessed.

2: All they that keep his testimonies, and that seek him with the whole heart, are blessed.

3: Also they do no iniquity: they walk in his ways.

4: All thy precepts diligently to keep thou has commanded us.

5: Ah, Lord! That my ways were directed to keep thy statues!

6: Ashamed I shall never be, when I have respect unto all thy commandments.

7: Always will I praise thee, with uprightness of heart, when I shall have learned thy righteous judgments.

8: All thy statutes will I keep: O forsake me not utterly.


9: By what means shall a young man cleanse his way? By taking heed thereto according to thy word.

10: By day and by night have I sought thee with my whole heart: O let me not wander from thy commandments.

11: By thy grace I have hid thy word in my heart, that I might not sin against thee.

12: Blessed art thou, O Lord: teach me thy statutes.

13: By the word so my lips will I declare all the judgments of thy mouth.

14: By far more than in all riches I have rejoiced in the way of thy testimonies.

15: By thy help I will meditate in thy precepts, and have respect unto thy ways.

16: By thy grace I will delight myself in thy statutes: I will not forget thy word.2

To repeat what was stated at the outset and said another way, the purpose of Psalm 119 is to exalt and extol God's law. The psalmist uses ten different terms to describe God's Word in Psalm 119. We see: law, way, testimonies, commandments, precepts, word, judgments, statutes, truth, and ordinances. Psalm 119 is like a thesaurus the way in which these ten terms describe various aspects of God's Word and its importance for believers.

In this study, we will look at some of the key words in each passage and then list important cross references for certain words in each passage. This approach is valuable since, allowing Scripture to interpret Scripture is full of rich treasures for the student of God's Word. I will utilize the Strong's Concordance numbering system in this study and I will show the Hebrew words with transliteration-pronunciation etymology and grammar. After listing some cross references of the underlined words of the verse under consideration, I will make a few brief comments which will then be followed by commentary from a Biblical scholar on each verse in the section.

Psalm 119 The Excellencies of God's Law


1 Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the LORD.

Doing a Hebrew word study involving transliteration-pronunciation etymology and grammar from Strong's we learn this about blessed: #0835 אֶשֶׁר 'esher {eh'-sher} from H0833; happiness; only in masculine plural construction as interjection, how happy!:—blessed, happy.

Cross references for blessedness: Psalm 32:1,2; Psalm112:1; Psalm128:1; Matthew 5:3-12; Luke 11:28; John 13:17; James 1:25; and Revelation 22:14.

In Luke, it is recorded that Jesus said: “...blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it.” (Luke 11:28) Hearing the Word of God and keeping it brings special blessings to the believer. In Revelation we learn more about this: “Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.” (Revelation 22:14) There is a happiness in keeping God's commandments, and the believer has a right to the tree of life and will be able to enter through the gates of the heavenly city!

Using this same approach, from Strong's we learn this about undefiled: #8549 תָּמִים tamiym {taw-meem'} from H8552; entire (literally, figuratively or morally); also (as noun) integrity, truth:—without blemish, complete, full, perfect, sincerely (-ity), sound, without spot, undefiled, upright (-ly), whole.

Cross references for undefiled: 2Kings 20:3 2Chronicles 31:20, 21 Job 1:1, 8 John 1:47 Acts 24:16 2Corinthians 1:12 Titus 2:11, 12

“There was a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job, and that man was blameless and upright, one who feared God and turned away from evil” Job 1:1. Job is a role model for all believers. In all the adversity he experienced, “he sinned not, nor charged God foolishly.” (Job 1:22)

“For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation for all people, training us to renounce ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self- controlled, upright, and godly lives in the present age.” (Titus11,12,13) In these passages, the apostle Paul tells Titus what an undefiled or upright Christian life will look like.

Regarding the word law, we learn: #8451 תֹּרָה torah {to-raw'}from H3384; a precept or statute, especially the Decalogue or Pentateuch:—law.

Cross references for law: Psalms 1:2 40:3, 8 119:11, 98 Deuteronomy 6:6 11:18-20 Proverbs 4:4 Isaiah 51:7 Jeremiah 31:33 Hebrews 8:10

The law gives us directions and instructions for living in a way pleasing to God. The word law is used 25 times in Psalm 119.

Calvin's comments are most instructive on being undefiled or upright:

1 Blessed are they who are upright In these words the prophet sets forth the same paradox which we met with at the commencement of the Book of Psalms. All men naturally aspire after happiness, but instead of searching for it in the right path, they designedly prefer wandering up and down through endless by-paths, to their ruin and destruction. The Holy Spirit deservedly condemns this apathy and blindness. And but for man’s cupidity, which, with brutish impetuosity, hurries him in the opposite direction, the meaning of the words would appear quite plain to him. And the further a man wanders from God, the happier does he imagine himself to be; and hence all treat, as a fable, what the Holy Spirit declares about true piety and the service of God. This is a doctrine which scarcely one among a hundred receives.

The term way, is here put for the manner, or course and way of life: and hence he calls those upright in their way, whose sincere and uniform desire it is to practice righteousness, and to devote their life to this purpose. In the next clause of the verse, he specifics more clearly, that a godly and righteous life consists in walking in the law of God If a person follow his own humor and caprice, he is certain to go astray; and even should he enjoy the applause of the whole world, he will only weary himself with very vanity. But it may be asked, whether the prophet excludes from the hope of happiness all who do not worship God perfectly? Were this his meaning, it would follow that none except angels alone would be happy, seeing that the perfect observance of the law is to be found in no part, of the earth. The answer is easy: When uprightness is demanded of the children of God, they do not lose the gracious remission of their sins, in which their salvation alone consists. While, then, the servants of God are happy, they still need to take refuge in his mercy, because their uprightness is not complete. In this manner are they who faithfully observe the law of God said to be truly happy; and thus is fulfilled that which is declared in Ps 32:2, “Blessed are they to whom God imputeth not sins.” In the second verse, the same doctrine is confirmed more fully, by pronouncing blessed, not. such as are wise in their own conceit, or assume a sort of fantastical holiness, but those who dedicate themselves to the covenant of God, and yield obedience to the dictates of hits law. Farther, by these words, he tells us that God is by no means satisfied with mere external service, for he demands the sincere and honest affection of the heart. And assuredly, if God be the sole judge and disposer of our life:, the truth must occupy the principal place in our heart, because it is not sufficient to have our hands and feet only enlisted in his service.3

2 Blessed are they that keep his testimonies, and that seek him with the whole heart.

Regarding “keep” we learn: #5341 נָצַר natsar {naw-tsar'} A primitive root; to guard, in a good sense (to protect, maintain, obey, etc.) or a bad one (to conceal, etc.):—besieged, hidden thing, keep (-er, -ing), monument, observe, preserve (-r), subtil, watcher (-man).

Cross references for keep: Psalms 119:22, 119:146, 25:10 105:45; Deuteronomy 6:17; 1Kings 2:3; Proverbs 23:26; Ezekiel 36:27; John 14:23; 1John 3:20

The key to happiness or blessedness is the path of obedience or keeping God's testimonies.

Regarding testimony: #5713 עֵדָה `edah {ay-daw'} Feminine of H5707 in its technical sense; testimony:—testimony, witness. Compare H5712.

Cross references for testimony: Psalm 119:129; Isaiah 8:20; Matthew 10:32; 1 John 5:11

“And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.” (1 John 5:11) God has given us a powerful testimony, namely, that He hath given us eternal life. This is a present possession now for the believer, and this life is in Christ.

“Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven.” (Matthew 10:32) It is our duty to confess him before men. We know Jesus will confess us before the Father because His Word is true.

Regarding seek: #1875 דּרשׁ darash {daw-rash'} A primitive root; properly to tread or frequent; usually to follow (for pursuit or search); by implication to seek or ask; specifically to worship:—ask, X at all, care for, X diligently, inquire, make inquisition, [necro-] mancer, question, require, search, seek [for, out], X surely.

Cross references for seek: Psalm 119:10; Deuteronomy 4:29; 2Chronicles 31:21; Jeremiah 29:13

“You will seek me and find me, when you seek me with all your heart.” (Jeremiah 29:13) Because of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, the believer's heart will pant after God like a deer panting for water. As the hart pants after the water brooks, so pants my soul after you, O God. (Psalm 42:1)

The Puritan John Gill has this to say about verse two:

Blessed are they that keep his testimonies,.... The whole word of God, the Scriptures of truth, are his testimonies: they testify of the mind of God, and of his love and grace in the method of salvation by Christ; they testify of Christ, his person, offices, and grace; of the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow; and of all the happiness that comes to the people of God thereby. The law is called a testimony, which being put into the ark, that had the name of the ark of the testimony. This is a testimony of the perfections of God, his holiness, justice, and goodness displayed in it; and of his good and perfect will, what should or should not be done. The Gospel is the testimony of Christ, of what he is, has done and suffered for his people, and of the blessings of grace by him; the ordinances of it, baptism and the Lord's supper, testify of the love of God, and grace of Christ; and all these good men keep: they keep the Scriptures as a sacred "depositum"; they hold fast the faithful word of the Gospel, that no man take it from them; and are desirous of observing both the law of God, as in the hands of Christ; and the ordinances of the Gospel, as delivered by him, from a principle of love to him; and such are happy persons in life, at death, and to all eternity;

and that seek him with the whole heart; that is, that seek the Lord by prayer and supplication, with a true heart, and in sincerity; that seek to know more of him, and that in good earnest; that seek for communion and fellowship with him, with the Spirit within them, with all their heart and soul; that seek Christ, and God in Christ, his kingdom, and his righteousness, and that in the first place, early, earnestly, and diligently.4

3 They also do no iniquity: they walk in his ways.

Regarding iniquity: #5766 עֶוֶל `evel {eh'-vel} or עָוֶל `avel {aw'-vel} and (fem.) עַוְלָה `avlah {av-law'} or `owlah {o-law'}or `olah {o-law'} from H5765; (moral) evil:—iniquity, perverseness, unjust (-ly), unrighteousness (-ly), wicked (-ness).

Cross references for do no iniquity: 1 John 3:9 5:18 “No one born of God makes a practice of sinning, for God's” and “We know that everyone who has been born of God does not keep on sinning, but he who was born of God protects him, and the evil one does not touch him.”

Spurgeon is always edifying to consult:

Verse 3. They also do no iniquity. Blessed indeed would those men be of whom this could be asserted without reserve and without explanation: we shall have reached the region of pure blessedness when we altogether cease from sin. Those who follow the word of God do no iniquity, the rule is perfect, and if it be constantly followed no fault will arise. Life, to the outward observer, at any rate, lies much in doing, and he who in his doings never swerves from equity, both towards God and man, has hit upon the way of perfection, and we may be sure that his heart is right. See how a whole heart leads to the avoidance of evil, for the Psalmist says, "That seek him with the whole heart. They also do no iniquity." We fear that no man can claim to be absolutely without sin, and yet we trust there are many who do not designedly, wilfully, knowingly, and continuously do anything that is wicked, ungodly, or unjust. Grace keeps the life righteous as to act even when the Christian has to bemoan the transgressions of the heart. Judged as men should be judged by their fellows, according to such just rules as men make for men, the true people of God do no iniquity: they are honest, upright, and chaste, and touching justice and morality they are blameless. Therefore are they happy.

They walk in his ways. They attend not only to the great main highway of the law, but to the smaller paths of the particular precepts. As they will perpetrate no sin of commission, so do they labour to be free from every sin of omission. It is not enough to them to be blameless, they wish also to be actively righteous. A hermit may escape into solitude that he may do no iniquity, but a saint lives in society that he may serve his God by walking in his ways. We must be positively as well as negatively right: we shall not long keep the second unless we attend to the first, for men will be walking one way or another, and if they do not follow the path of God's law they will soon do iniquity. The surest way to abstain from evil is to be fully occupied in doing good. This verse describes believers as they exist among us: although they have their faults and infirmities, yet they hate evil, and will not permit themselves to do it; they love the ways of truth, right and true godliness, and habitually they walk therein. They do not claim to be absolutely perfect except in their desires, and there they are pure indeed, for they pant to be kept from all sin, and to be led into all holiness.5

4 Thou hast commanded us to keep thy precepts diligently.

Regarding commanded: #6680 צוּה tsavah {tsaw-vaw'} a primitive root; (intensively) to constitute, enjoin:—appoint, (for-) bid. (give a) charge, (give a, give in, send with) command (-er, ment), send a messenger, put, (set) in order.

Regarding precepts: # 6490 פִּקּוּד piqquwd {pik-kood'} or פִּקֻּד piqqud {pik-kood'}from H6485; properly appointed, that is, a mandate (of God; plural only, collectively for the Law):—commandment, precept, statute.

Cross references for commanded in verse four: Deuteronomy 4:1, 9, 5:29-33, 6:17,11:13, 22; 12:32 28:1-14 30:16 Joshua 1:7 Jeremiah 7:23 Matthew 28:20 John 14:15, 21 Philippians 4:8, 9 1 John 5:3

The word precepts is used twenty-one times in Psalm 119. If you study through the cross references, we get the sum of the matter in the gospel of John Jesus says: "If you love me, you will keep my commandments.”

Matthew Henry's comments on verse 4 is instructive:

We are here taught, 1. To own ourselves under the highest obligations to walk in God’s law. The tempter would possess men with an opinion that they are at their liberty whether they will make the word of God their rule or no, that, though it may be good, yet it is not so necessary as they are made to believe it is. He taught our first parents to question the command: Hath God said, You shall not eat? And therefore we are concerned to be well established in this (v. 4): Thou hast commanded us to keep thy precepts, to make religion our rule; and to keep them diligently, to make religion our business and to mind it carefully and constantly.6

5 O that my ways were directed to keep thy statutes!

Regarding ways: #1870 דֶּרֶךְ derek {deh'-rek} from H1869; a road (as trodden); figuratively a course of life or mode of action, often adverbially:—along, away, because of, + by, conversation, custom, [east-] ward, journey, manner, passenger, through, toward, [high-] [path-] way [-side], whither [-soever].

Regarding statutes: #2706 חֹק choq {khoke} from H2710; an enactment; hence an appointment (of time, space, quantity, labor or usage):—appointed, bound, commandment, convenient, custom, decree (-d), due, law, measure, X necessary, ordinance (-nary), portion, set time, statute, task.

Cross references for verse five on statutes: Psalms 32, 36, 44, 45, 131, 159, 173 51:10 Jeremiah 31:33 Romans 7:22- 24 2Thessalonians 3:5 Hebrews 13:21

The apostle Paul captures the Psalmist's thoughts and prayers when he says: “May the Lord direct your hearts to the love of God and to the steadfastness of Christ.” (2Thessalonians 3:5)

From the notes in the Geneva Bible of 1599 we learn:

“David acknowledges his imperfection, desiring God to reform it, that his life may be conformable to Gods word.”7

6 Then shall I not be ashamed, when I have respect unto all thy commandments.

Regarding ashamed: #0954 בּושׁ buwsh {boosh} a primitive root; properly to pale, that is, by implication to be ashamed; also (by implication) to be disappointed, or delayed:—(be, make, bring to, cause, put to, with, a-) shame (-d), be (put to) confounded (-fusion), become dry, delay, be long.

Regarding commandments: #4687 מִצְוָה mitsvah {mits-vaw'} from H6680; a command, whether human or divine (collectively the Law):—(which was) commanded (-ment), law, ordinance, precept.

Cross references for “shall I” Psalm 119:31, 80 Job 22:26; Daniel 12:2,3 1John 2:28 3:20, 21 and “I have” Psalm 119:128; John 15:14; James 2:10

We will not be ashamed, instead, with the blessings of the New Covenant, we will say: “For then you will delight yourself in the Almighty and lift up your face to God.” (Job 22:26)

When we have respect for God's commandments, Christ we say: “You are my friends if you do what I command you.” (John 15:14)

It will be beneficial to consult Matthew Poole's thoughts on this passage:

Verse 6 Then shall I not be ashamed; either of my actions, or of my profession of religion, or of my hope and confidence in thy favour. When sinners shall be ashamed both here, Romans 6:21, and hereafter, Daniel 12:2, I, having the conscience of mine own integrity, shall lift up my head with courage and boldness, both before men, when they either accuse or persecute me, and before God in the day of judgment, as it is said, 1 John 4:17. Respect; a due and true respect, which implies high valuation, hearty affection, diligent study, and common practice. Unto all thy commandments; so as not to be partial in my obedience, not to allow myself in the practice of any known sin, or in the neglect of any known duty.8

7 I will praise thee with uprightness of heart, when I shall have learned thy righteous judgments.

Regarding righteous: #6664 צֶדֶק tsedeq {tseh'-dek} from H6663; the right (natural, moral or legal); also (abstractly) equity or (figuratively) prosperity:— X even, (X that which is altogether) just (-ice), ([un-]) right (-eous) (cause, -ly, -ness).

Regarding judgments: #4941 מִשְׁפָּט mishpat {mish-pawt'} from H8199; properly a verdict (favorable or unfavorable) pronounced judicially, especially a sentence or formal decree (human or (particularly) divine law, individual or collectively), including the act, the place, the suit, the crime, and the penalty; abstractly justice, including a particular right, or privilege (statutory or customary), or even a style:— + adversary, ceremony, charge, X crime, custom, desert, determination, discretion, disposing, due, fashion, form, to be judged, judgment, just (-ice, -ly), (manner of) law (-ful), manner, measure, (due) order, ordinance, right, sentence, usest, X worthy, + wrong.

Cross references in verse seven for: “I will” Psalm 119:171; 9:1; 86:12, 13; 1Chronicles 29:13-17 and “when” Psalm 119:12, 18, 19, 27, 33, 34, 64, 73, 124, 194 25:4, 5, 8- 10 143:10 Isaiah 48:17 John 6:45

When we learn of God's righteous judgments, we will be able to say: “I will give thanks to the Lord with my whole heart; I will recount all of your wonderful deeds.” (Psalm 9:1)

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown's comments are concise:

Verse 7 judgments — rules of conduct formed by God‘s judicial decisions; hence the wide sense of the word in the Psalms, so that it includes decisions of approval as well as condemnation.9

8 I will keep thy statutes: O forsake me not utterly.

Regarding keep: #8104 שָׁמַר shamar {shaw-mar'} a primitive root; properly to hedge about (as with thorns), that is, guard; generally to protect, attend to, etc.:—beware, be circumspect, take heed (to self), keep (-er, self), mark, look narrowly, observe, preserve, regard, reserve, save (self), sure, (that lay) wait (for), watch (-man).

Regarding forsake: #5800 עָזַב `azab {aw-zab'} a primitive root; to loosen, that is, relinquish, permit, etc.:—commit self, fail, forsake, fortify, help, leave (destitute, off), refuse, X surely.

Cross references for “I will” Psalm 119:16, 106, 115 Joshua 24:15 and “O forsake” Psalm 119:116, 117, 176 38:21, 22 51:11 Philippians 4:13

In regards to keeping God statutes, we are called to make a decision: "And if it is evil in your eyes to serve the Lord, choose this day whom you will serve, whether the gods your fathers served in the region beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land you dwell. But as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord." (Joshua 24:15)

Concluding this section of Psalm 119:1-8 we will close with Matthew Henry:

119:1-8 This psalm may be considered as the statement of a believer's experience. As far as our views, desires, and affections agree with what is here expressed, they come from the influences of the Holy Spirit, and no further. The pardoning mercy of God in Christ, is the only source of a sinner's happiness. And those are most happy, who are preserved most free from the defilement of sin, who simply believe God's testimonies, and depend on his promises. If the heart be divided between him and the world, it is evil. But the saints carefully avoid all sin; they are conscious of much evil that clogs them in the ways of God, but not of that wickedness which draws them out of those ways. The tempter would make men think they are at them out of those ways. The tempter would make men think they are at liberty to follow the word of God or not, as they please. But the desire and prayer of a good man agree with the will and command of God. If a man expects by obedience in one thing to purchase indulgence for disobedience in others, his hypocrisy will be detected; if he is not ashamed in this world, everlasting shame will be his portion. The psalmist coveted to learn the laws of God, to give God the glory. And believers see that if God forsakes them, the temper will be too hard for them.10

In conclusion, as said at the beginning, the aim of this Psalm is to promote the excellencies of God's laws, and the blessedness of those who abide by them. God willing, we will, using the above approach work through all 22 sections of Psalm 119 and by the grace of God come to a richer understanding of God's law and a deeper love for His Word, which is truly a lamp unto our feet.

Notes on Psalm 119:1-8 (ALEPH)

  1. Matthew Poole's Commentary on the Holy Bible, Vol. 2 (Peabody, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publishers, 1985) p. 182.

  2. C. H. Spurgeon, The Treasury of David, Vol. II, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), pp.147, 162.

  3. John Calvin, Calvin's Commentaries, Vol. VI: Psalms, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House Reprinted 1979), p.402-404.

  4. John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments 9 Volumes, Psalms, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, p. 1370, 1371.

  5. C. H. Spurgeon, The Treasury of David, Vol. II, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), pp.151.

  6. Matthew Henry Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, Fourth printing 1985) p. 914.

  7. The 1599 Geneva Bible, (White Hall West Virginia, Tolle Lege Press, 2006), p. 619.

  8. Matthew Poole's Commentary on the Holy Bible, Vol. 2 (Peabody, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publishers, 1985) p. 182,183.

  9. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1977) p. 450.

  10. Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary, An abridgment of the 6 volume Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Bible, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson, reprinted 2003), p. 956.

Studies in Psalm 119:9-16 Arranged by Jack Kettler


9 Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way? By taking heed thereto according to thy word.

In every verse in this section, we see the purifying power of God's Word.

How shall a young man or anyone cleanse their way? There are many ways that someone may go. “There is a way that seems right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death” (Proverbs 16:25). The way that seems right unto man is the way of the natural man. This is humanism, man following Satan's lie, rather than letting God be the supreme authority arbiter of truth. Instead, fallen man says, he will be like God and be the arbiter of good and evil. This is surely, the way death. “The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether” (Psalm 19:9). How can someone rightly fear the Lord and cleanse their way? The answer is in the latter part of verse 9, “By taking heed thereto according to they word.” We bow before God in humility and submit to His Word.

It would be profitable to read the commentary of Baptist Puritan John Gill on this verse:

Wherewith shall a young man cleanse his way?.... Some think David means himself, and that he was a young man when he wrote this psalm; and which they think is confirmed by Psalm 119:100; but neither of them seem conclusive; rather any young man is meant, and who is particularly mentioned, because young men are liable to sins and snares, to carnal lusts and sensual pleasures, which are of a defiling nature. Some are of opinion that a young man, or babe in Christ, is intended, that needs direction in his way, and instruction about the manner of cleansing it. But the former sense seems best, and expresses the concern of the psalmist for the education and right information of youth; which is a matter of great moment and advantage to families, neighbourhoods, and commonwealths. The question supposes the young man to be impure, as every man is by birth, being conceived in sin, and shapen in iniquity; is a transgressor from the womb, and his heart, ways, and actions, evil from his youth: and the difficulty is, how he shall be cleansed; how one so impure in his nature, heart, and ways, can be just with God, or become undefiled in the way, as in Psalm 119:1; to which some reference may be had: or how he can have his heart made pure, or a clean one be created in him; or how his way, life, and conversation, may be corrected, reformed, and amended. The answer is,

by taking heed thereto according to thy word; that is, to his way and course of life, and steering it according to the direction of the word of God. But I think the words may be better rendered and supplied thus, "by observing what is according to thy word" (p); which shows how a sinner is to be cleansed from his sins by the blood of Christ, and justified by his righteousness, and be clean through his word; and also how and by whom the work of sanctification is wrought in the heart, even by the Spirit of God, by means of the word; and what is the rule of a man's walk and conversation: he will find the word of God to be profitable, to inform in the doctrines of justification and pardon, to acquaint him with the nature of regeneration and sanctification; and for the correction and amendment of his life and manners, and for his instruction in every branch of righteousness, 2 Timothy 3:16.11

10 With my whole heart have I sought thee: O let me not wander from thy commandments.

The Psalmist cries, “with my whole heart” leb (labe) the heart; which can be used figuratively for feelings, the will and even the intellect has he sought God. He prays, “O let me not wander;” shagah (shaw-gaw') go astray, be deceived, sin willing or sin through ignorance, or stray “from thy commandments;” mitsvah (mits-vaw') which consist of specific divine ordinances and precepts and can collectively refer to the whole Law.

In this same Psalm we see the same pattern of the godly, “that seek him with the whole heart” (119:2) and “I cried with my whole heart” (119:145).

Calvin's comments on this verse are most edifying:

10. With my whole heart Conscious of the integrity of his heart, the prophet still implores the help of God, that he might not stumble by reason of his infirmity. He makes no boast of self-preparation, as if he had spontaneously begun to inquire after God, but in praising the grace which he had experienced, he at the same time aspires after steadfastness to persevere in walking in his ways. It is folly on the part of the Papists to seize upon this and similar passages, as if the saints, of their own free will, anticipated the grace of the Holy Spirit, and afterwards were favored with his aid. The prophet does not make a division between God and himself, but rather prays God to continue his work till it is completed, agreeably with what we are generally taught, to keep God mindful of his benefits until he accomplish them.

In the meantime, there is good cause for presenting our supplication to God, to stretch out his hand towards us when he sees our minds so settled, that we are solicitous of nothing so much as acting uprightly. And as he elevates us with confidence to ask the gift of perseverance, when he inspires our hearts with proper affection towards him, so also does he entreat us for the future not to sink into a careless and languid state like soldiers who have been discharged, but seek to be constantly directed by the spirit of wisdom, and to be sustained by the principles of fortitude and virtue. David here, from his own example, points out to us a rule, that by how much a man finds himself succored by God, by so much ought he to be induced the more carefully and earnestly to implore the continuance of his aid; for unless he restrain us, we will instantly wander and go astray. This sentiment is more explicitly stated in the original word תשגני, tashqeni, which is in the passive voice, and signifies, to be led astray403 From the import of the term, I do not mean to establish the doctrine that God secretly incites us to commit sin, but only to let my readers know, that such is our liability to err, that we immediately relapse into sin the instant he leaves us to ourselves. This passage also admonishes us that the man who swerves but a little from God’s commandments is guilty of going astray.12

11 Thy word have I hid in mine heart, that I might not sin against thee.

Two passages of Scripture that continue this theme of keeping God's Word in our heart are: “My son, if you receive my words and treasure up my commandments with you” (Proverbs 2:1); and “Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, singing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, with thankfulness in your hearts to God” (Colossians 3:16).

The devil, is like a roaring lion and ready to attack. We need to have God's Word close to us. Jesus used the Word as his defense when the devil came to Him in the wilderness. Likewise, if we keep the Word close to us, or in our hearts we will be empowered to resist sin.

Matthew Poole's comment on verse 11 is right to the point:

I have not contented myself with bare hearing or reading thy word, but have received it in the love of it, have diligently pondered it, and laid it up in my mind and memory like a choice treasure, to be ready upon all occasions, to counsel, or comfort, or quicken, or caution me, as need requires; that by a diligent and affectionate consideration of thy precepts, and promises, and threatenings, I might be kept from sinful courses, against which these are the best antidote.13

12 Blessed art thou, O LORD: teach me thy statutes.

The Psalmist rightly gives glory to God using the language of doxology, which is a short hymn of praise when he begins by saying: “Blessed art thou, O Lord.” When we approach God in prayer, we should always begin by praising Him, before bringing our requests. The Psalmists then asks God to teach him, His statutes.

Matthew Henry says:

Here, 1. David gives glory to God: “Blessed art thou, O Lord! Thou art infinitely happy in the enjoyment of thyself and hast no need of me or my services; yet thou art pleased to reckon thyself honoured by them; assist me therefore, and then accept me.” In all our prayers we should intermix praises. 2. He asks grace from God: “Teach me thy statutes; give me to know and do my duty in every thing. Thou art the fountain of all blessedness; O let me have this drop from that fountain, this blessing from that blessedness: Teach me thy statutes, that I may know how to bless thee, who art a blessed God, and that I may be blessed in thee.”14

13 With my lips have I declared all the judgments of thy mouth.

How does this apply in the New Covenant? First, we should understand that Jesus is the Word of God manifest in the flesh (John 1:14). One clear way we declare all of God's judgments is to follow Christ's instructions: “Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father who is in heaven” (Matthew 10:32). Christ may be denied in words by denying His Lordship and Christ may be denied in works by breaking the law of God. Let us seek to faithfully confess Him before man, and strive to honor Him by keeping God's commandments.

Spurgeon's comments on this passage will be of value:

Ver. 13. With my lips have I declared all the judgments of thy mouth. The taught one of Psalms 119:12 is here a teacher himself. What we learn in secret we are to proclaim upon the housetops. So had the Psalmist done. As much as he had known he had spoken. God has revealed many of his judgments by his mouth, that is to say, by a plain and open revelation; these it is out duty to repeat, becoming, as it were, so many exact echoes of his one infallible voice. There are judgments of God which are a great deep, which he does not reveal, and with these it will be wise for us not to intermeddle. What the Lord has veiled it would be presumption for us to uncover; but, on the other hand, what the Lord has revealed it would be shameful for us to conceal. It is a great comfort to a Christian in time of trouble when in looking back upon his past life he can claim to have done his duty by the word of God. To have been, like Noah, a preacher of righteousness, is a great joy when the floods are rising, and the ungodly world is about to be destroyed. Lips which have been used in proclaiming God's statutes are sure to be acceptable when pleading God's promises. If we have had such regard to that which cometh out of God's mouth that we have published it far and wide, we may rest quite as assured that God will have respect unto the prayers which come out of our mouths.

It will be an effectual method of cleansing a young man's way if he addicts himself continually to preaching the gospel. He cannot go far wrong in judgment whose whole soul is occupied in setting forth the judgments of the Lord. By teaching we learn; by training the tongue to holy speech we master the whole body; by familiarity with the divine procedure we are made to delight in righteousness; and thus in a threefold manner our way is cleansed by our proclaiming the way of the Lord.15

14 I have rejoiced in the way of thy testimonies, as much as in all riches.

The Psalmist says: “I have rejoiced in the way of thy testimonies,” In the New Covenant we understand that the Scriptures or testimonies declare most clearly that Christ himself, is the only way of life and salvation. All earthly riches can be counted as but dung when compared to the riches in Christ!

Again, let's consult Surgeon from his Treasury of David on this verse:

Ver. 14. I have rejoiced in the way of thy testimonies. Delight in the word of God is a sure proof that it has taken effect upon the heart, and so is cleansing the life. The Psalmist not only says that he does rejoice, but that he has rejoiced. For years it had been his joy and bliss to give his soul to the teaching of the word. His rejoicing had not only arisen out of the word of God, but out of the practical characteristics of it. The Way was as dear to him as the Truth and the Life. There was no picking and choosing with David, or if indeed he did make a selection, he chose the most practical first.

As much as in all riches. He compared his intense satisfaction with God's will with that of a man who possesses large and varied estates, and the heart to enjoy them. David knew the riches that come of sovereignty and which grow out of conquest; he valued the wealth which proceeds from labour, or is gotten by inheritance: he knew "all riches." The gracious king had been glad to see the gold and silver poured into his treasury that he might devote vast masses of it to the building of the Temple of Jehovah upon Mount Zion. He rejoiced in all sorts of riches consecrated and laid up for the noblest uses, and yet the way of God's word had given him more pleasure than even these. Observe that his joy was personal, distinct, remembered, and abundant. Wonder not that in the previous verse he glories in having spoken much of that which he had so much enjoyed: a man may well talk of that which is his delight.16

15 I will meditate in thy precepts, and have respect unto thy ways.

Christian meditation is a manner of study and prayer in which a the believer intentionally considers a particular or several bible passages and reflects on the meaning in the context of developing a deeper love of God.

Paul tells Timothy to "meditate upon these things; give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all" (1 Timothy 4:15).

Calvin is precise in his comments:

In thy precepts That to which I formerly adverted must not be forgotten -- the prophet's not making a boast of his own acquirements, but setting before others an example for their imitation. We are aware that the majority of mankind are so much involved in the cares of the world, as to leave no time or leisure for meditating upon the doctrine of God. To meet this callous indifference, he very seasonably commends diligence and attention. And even were we not so ensnared by the world, we know how readily we lose sight of the law of God, in the daily temptations which suddenly overtake us. It is not therefore without reason that the prophet exhorts us to constant exercise, and enjoins us to direct all our energies to the subject of meditation on God's precepts. And as the life of men is unstable, being continually distracted by the carnality of their minds, he declares that he will consider attentively the ways of God. Subsequently, he repeats the exquisite pleasure he took in this pursuit. For our proficiency in the law of God will be small, until we cheerfully and heartily set our minds upon it. And, in fact, the commencement of a good life consists in God's law attracting us to him by its sweetness. By the same means the lusts of the flesh, too, are subdued or mitigated. In our natural state, what is more agreeable to us than that which is sinful? This will be the constant tendency of our minds, unless the delight which we feel in the law carry us in the opposite direction.17

16 I will delight myself in thy statutes: I will not forget thy word.

The believer in the New Covenant continues this practice: “For I delight in God's law after the inward man” (Romans 7:22).

A warning for forgetfulness: “Then beware lest you forget Yahweh, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage” (Deuteronomy 6:12).

We will conclude this section with Matthew Henry's thoughts:

119:9-16 To original corruption all have added actual sin. The ruin of the young is either living by no rule at all, or choosing false rules: let them walk by Scripture rules. To doubt of our own wisdom and strength, and to depend upon God, proves the purpose of holiness is sincere. God's word is treasure worth laying up, and there is no laying it up safe but in our hearts, that we may oppose God's precepts to the dominion of sin, his promises to its allurements, and his threatenings to its violence. Let this be our plea with Him to teach us his statutes, that, being partakers of his holiness, we may also partake of his blessedness. And those whose hearts are fed with the bread of life, should with their lips feed many. In the way of God's commandments there is the unsearchable riches of Christ. But we do not meditate on God's precepts to good purpose, unless our good thoughts produce good works. I will not only think of thy statutes, but do them with delight. And it will be well to try the sincerity of our obedience by tracing the spring of it; the reality of our love by cheerfulness in appointed duties.18

Notes on BETH Psalm 119:9-16

  1. John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments 9 Volumes, Psalms, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, p. 1373, 1374.

  2. John Calvin, Calvin's Commentaries, Vol. VI: Psalms, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House Reprinted 1979), p.408, 409.

  3. Matthew Poole's Commentary on the Holy Bible, Vol. 2 (Peabody, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publishers, 1985) p. 183.

  4. Matthew Henry Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, Fourth printing 1985) p. 915.

  5. C. H. Spurgeon, The Treasury of David, Vol. II, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), p. 160.

  6. C. H. Spurgeon, p. 160.

  7. John Calvin, Calvin's Commentaries, Vol. VI: Psalms, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House Reprinted 1979), p.411.

  8. Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary, An abridgment of the 6 volume Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Bible, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson, reprinted 2003), pp. 956, 957.

GIMEL Psalm 119:17-24 Arranged by Jack Kettler

17 Deal bountifully with thy servant, that I may live, and keep thy word.

Like many parts of this Psalm, the Psalmist starts off with a prayer, “that I may live, and keep thy word. “ The Psalmist wants God to preserve the spiritual life in his soul.

Spurgeon in the Treasury of David brilliantly comments on this prayer:

“Deal bountifully with thy servant." He takes pleasure in owning his duty to God, and counts it the joy of his heart to be in the service of his God. Out of his condition he makes a plea, for a servant has some hold upon a master; but in this case the wording of the plea shuts out the idea of legal claim, since he seeks bounty rather than reward. Let my wages be according to thy goodness, and not according to my merit. Reward me according to the largeness of thy liberality, and not according to the scantiness of my service. The hired servants of our Father have all of them bread enough and to Spare, and he will not leave one of his household to perish with hunger. If the Lord will only treat us as he treats the least of his servants we may be well content, for all his true servants are sons, princes of the blood, heirs of life eternal. David felt that his great needs required a bountiful provision, and that his little desert would never earn such a supply; hence he must throw himself upon God's grace, and look for the great things he needed from the great goodness of the Lord. He begs for a liberality of grace, after the fashion of one who prayed. "O Lord, thou must give me great mercy or no mercy, for little mercy will not serve my turn.”

“That I may live." Without abundant mercy he could not live. It takes great grace to keep a saint alive. Even life is a gift of divine bounty to such undeserving ones as we are. Only the Lord can keep us in being, and it is mighty grace which preserves to us the life which we have forfeited by our sin. It is right to desire to live, it is meet to pray to live, it is just to ascribe prolonged life to the favour of God. Spiritual life, without which this natural life is mere existence, is also to be sought of the Lord's bounty, for it is the noblest work of divine grace, and in it the bounty of God is gloriously displayed. The Lord's servants cannot serve him in their own strength, for they cannot even live unless his grace abounds towards them.”

“And keep thy word." This should be the rule, the object, and the joy of our life. We may not wish to live and sin; but we may pray to live and keep God's word. Being is a poor thing if it be not well-being. Life is only worth keeping while we can keep God's word; indeed, there is no life in the highest sense apart from holiness: life while we break the law is but a name to live.

The prayer of this verse shows that it is only through divine bounty or grace that we can live as faithful servants of God, and manifest obedience to his commands. If we give God service it must be because he gives us grace. We work for him because he works in us. Thus we may make a chain out of the opening verses of the three first octaves of this Psalm: Psalm 119:1 blesses the holy man, Psalm 119:9 asks how we can attain to such holiness, and Psalm 119:17 traces such holiness to its secret source, and shows us how to seek the blessing. There more a man prizes holiness and the more earnestly he strives after it, the more will he be driven towards God for help therein, for he will plainly perceive that his own strength is insufficient, and that he cannot even so much as live without the bounteous assistance of the Lord his God.”19

18 Open thou mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out of thy law.

We need our eyes to opened because of our spiritual blindness, which is the result of sin. When God opens our eyes, we see God's wondrous grace that His law reveals.

The Puritan John Gill makes great observations on this passage:

“Open thou mine eyes,.... The eyes of my heart or understanding, as Kimchi; or, "reveal mine eyes" (t); take off the veil from them: there is a veil of darkness and ignorance on the hearts of all men, with respect to divine and spiritual things; their understandings are darkened, yea, darkness itself. This veil must be removed; the scales must drop from their eyes; their eyes must be opened and enlightened, before they can discern spiritual things contained in the word of God; and even good men need to have the eyes of their understandings more and more enlightened into these things, as the psalmist here petitions, and the apostle prays for his Ephesians, Ephesians 1:17;

that I may behold wondrous things out of thy law; the law strictly taken, which had great and excellent things in it; and was wonderful for the compendiousness of it; for the justice, holiness, and equity of its precepts; especially for its spirituality, and above all for Christ, being the end of it; the two last more particularly could only be discerned by a spiritual man: or rather the five books of Moses, the almost only Scriptures extant in David's time, in which there were many wonderful things concerning Christ; some delivered by way of promise and prophecy of him, under the characters of the seed of the woman, the seed of Abraham, the Shiloh, and the great Prophet; and many others in dark figures, types, and shadows, which required a spiritual sight to look into; of which the rock and manna, the brasen serpent, passover, &c. are instances: but rather, as the word "law" signifies "doctrine", the doctrine of the Gospel may be meant; which contains mysteries in it, respecting the trinity of Persons in the Godhead, the person of Christ, his incarnation, sufferings and death; the blessings of grace through him; the doctrines of peace, pardon, righteousness, eternal life, and the resurrection of the dead; with many others.”20

19 I am a stranger in the earth: hide not thy commandments from me.

The believer understands that this world is not our home. That fact that we are just passing through, does not mean we are unconcerned and passive when faced with corruption in the church and public sphere. We stay grounded and encouraged by keeping our eyes on our heavenly home.

Albert Barnes gets the sense of the Psalmist's prayer exactly:

“I am a stranger in the earth - A wayfaring man; a pilgrim; a so-journer; a man whose permanent home is not in this world. The word is applicable to one who belongs to another country, and who is now merely passing through a foreign land, or sojourning there for a time. Compare the notes at Hebrews 11:13. The home of the child of God is heaven. Here he is in a strange - a foreign - land. He is to abide here but for a little time, and then to pass on to his eternal habitation.

Hide not thy commandments from me - Make me to know them; keep them continually before me. In this strange land, away from my home, let me have the comfort of feeling that thy commands are ever with me to guide me; thy promises to comfort me. The feeling is that of one in a strange land who would desire, if possible, to keep up constant communications with his home - his family, his friends, his kindred there. On earth, the place of our sojourning - of our pilgrimage - the friend of God desires to have constant contact with heaven, his final home; not to be left to the desolate feeling that he is cut off from all contact with that world where he is forever to dwell.”21

20 My soul breaketh for the longing that it hath unto thy judgments at all times.

The believer is never detached and uninvolved when seeing unrighteousness flaunted by unbelievers. We desire and long for God's righteous judgement to rule.

Matthew Henry make some pertinent observations on this verse:

“David had prayed that God would open his eyes (Psalm 119:18) and open the law (Psalm 119:19); now here he pleads the earnestness of his desire for knowledge and grace, for it is the fervent prayer that avails much. 1. His desire was importunate: My soul breaketh for the longing it hath to thy judgments, or (as some read it) “It is taken up, and wholly employed, in longing for thy judgments; the whole stream of its desires runs in this channel. I shall think myself quite broken and undone if I want the word of God, the direction, converse, and comfort of it.” 2. It was constant - at all times. It was not now and then, in a good humour, that he was so fond of the word of God; but it is the habitual temper of every sanctified soul to hunger after the word of God as its necessary food, which there is no living without.”22

21 Thou hast rebuked the proud that are cursed, which do err from thy commandments.

All of God's judgments are righteous and true.

Calvin comments are most edifying:

“Thou hast destroyed the proud. Others render it:, Thou hast rebuked the proud; a translation of which the Hebrew term גער, gaar, admits when the letter ב, beth, is joined with it in construction; but this being awaiting, it is better to render it destroy406 It makes, however, little difference to the main drift of the passage, there being no doubt that the intention of the prophet is, to inform us that God’s judgments instructed him to apply his mind to the study of the law; and certainly this is an exercise which we ought on no account to defer till God visit us with chastisement.. But when we behold him taking vengeance upon the wicked, and the despisers of his word, we must be stupid, indeed, if his rod do not teach us wisdom; and, doubtless, it is an instance of special kindness on God’s part, to spare us, and only to terrify us from afar, that he may bring us to himself without injuring or chastising us at all.

It is not without reason that he denominates all unbelievers proud, because it is true faith alone which humbles us, and all rebellion is the offspring of pride. From this we learn how profitable it is to consider carefully and attentively the judgments of God, by which he overthrows such haughtiness. When the weak in faith see the wicked rise in furious. opposition against God, arrogantly casting off all restraint, and holding all religion in derision with impunity, they begin to question whether there be a God who sits as judge in heaven. God may, for a time, wink at this: by-and-bye, we witness him setting forth some indication of his judgment, to convince us that he hath not in vain uttered threatening against the violators of his law; and we ought to bear in mind that all who depart from him are reprobate.

Let it be carefully observed that, by wandering from his commandments, is not meant all kinds of transgression indiscriminately, but that unbridled licentiousness which proceeds from impious contempt of God. It is, indeed, given as a general sentence, that “every one is cursed who continueth not in all things which are written,” Deuteronomy 27:26

But as God in his paternal kindness, bears with those who fail through infirmity of the flesh, so here we must understand these judgments to be expressly executed upon the wicked and reprobate; and their end, as Isaiah declares, is, “that the inhabitants of the earth may learn righteousness,” (Isaiah 26:9)”23

22 Remove from me reproach and contempt; for I have kept thy testimonies.

Believers are often reproached by the unrighteous, so it is easy to identify with the Psalmist here.

Mathew Poole's comments are to the point:

“Reproach, which I suffer unjustly and for thy sake, as he elsewhere complains.

I have kept thy testimonies, and therefore I am innocent from those crimes for which they censure and reproach me. Or, and therefore thou wilt maintain mine honour and interest according to thy promise made to such as keep thy testimonies, and I beg with some confidence that thou wilt do it.”24

23 Princes also did sit and speak against me: but thy servant did meditate in thy statutes.

Even when reproached by men in high places, we still find hope in God's commandments.

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown in their commentary concur:

God will rebuke those who despise His word and deliver His servants from their reproach, giving them boldness in and by His truth, even before the greatest men.”25

24 Thy testimonies also are my delight, and my counselors.

In closing this section on verses 17-24, Matthew Henry thoughts serve as a good conclusion:

“If God deals in strict justice with us, we all perish. We ought to spend our lives in his

service; we shall find true life in keeping his word. Those that would see the wondrous things of God's law and gospel, must beg him to give them understanding, by the light of his Spirit. Believers feel themselves strangers on earth; they fear missing their way, and losing comfort by erring from God's commandments. Every sanctified soul hungers after the word of God, as food which there is no living without. There is something of pride at the bottom of every wilful sin. God can silence lying lips; reproach and contempt may humble and do us good, and then they shall be removed. Do we find the weight of the cross is above that we are able to bear? He that bore it for us will enable us to bear it; upheld by him we cannot sink. It is sad when those who should protect the innocent, are their betrayers. The psalmist went on in duty, and he found comfort in the word of God. The comforts of the word of God are most pleasant to a gracious soul, when other comforts are made bitter; and those that would have God's testimonies to be their delight, must be advised by them. May the Lord direct us in exercising repentance of sin, and faith in Christ.”26

Notes on GIMEL Psalm 119: 17-24:

  1. C. H. Spurgeon, The Treasury of David, Vol. II, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), pp. 171,172.

  2. John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments 9 Volumes, Psalms, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, p. 1378.

  3. Albert Barnes, THE AGES DIGITAL LIBRARYCOMMENTARY, Barnes’ Notes on the Bible Volume 5 -Psalms, p. 1799.

  4. Matthew Henry Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, Fourth printing 1985) p. 915.

  5. John Calvin, Calvin's Commentaries, Vol. VI: Psalms, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House Reprinted 1979), p.415, 416.

  6. Matthew Poole's Commentary on the Holy Bible, Vol. 2 (Peabody, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publishers, 1985) p. 183.

  7. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1977) p. 450.

  8. Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary, An abridgment of the 6 volume Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Bible, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson, reprinted 2003), p. 957.

Mr. Kettler is an ordained Presbyterian Elder and the owner of where his theological, philosophical and political articles can be read.