Scriptural Names of The Holy Spirit                                                                By Jack Kettler

For Christians, one of the three persons of the Godhead, along with the Father and the Son, is the Holy Spirit. In older translations like the King James Version, the Holy Spirit is also called the Holy Ghost. When consulting a Greek lexicon, you will see that both renderings can be used interchangeably. Doing simple internet search on synonyms you will commonly find that the Holy Ghost is a proper noun along with the following synonyms: God the Holy Spirit, Holy Spirit, Comforter.

Additionally, the Holy Spirit is not an impersonal power or a force, but a person and God indeed. The following list of names is abbreviated. Some scholars cite and allude to over 100 names of the Holy Spirit and attributes the Spirit’s divine character and actions.

In this study I use simple format. I cite a name of the Holy Spirit followed by the Scriptural reference which is listed in full for the reader’s convenience. Then I cite a commentary exposition to challenge the reader to dig a little deeper. At the end, will be a confessional statement from the Westminster Confession of Faith Chapter 2 - Of God, and of the Holy Trinity along with Scriptural proofs.

Breath of the Almighty

Scriptural Source:

“The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.” (Job 33:4)

Exposition; from the Pulpit Commentary we read:

“The Spirit of God hath made me. This is assigned as the main reason why Job should give his best attention to Elihu's words. Elihu claims to be quickened and informed by the Divine Spirit which was once breathed into man (Genesis 2:7), whereby man became a living soul (comp. Job 32:8). And the breath of the Almighty hath given me life; or, quiekened me - originated and preserved my life. Elihu does not, however, claim that his words are actually inspired, or that he has a message to Job from the Almighty.” (1) 


Scriptural Source:

“And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you forever… But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.” (John 14:16, 26)

Exposition; from Matthew Poole's Commentary on versus 26 we read:

“The word is the same which was so translated before; (see the import of it, John 14:16,17) he is there called the Comforter, and the Spirit of truth; here, the Holy Spirit. The Father here is said to send in the name, that is, with the authority and upon the mediation, of the Lord Jesus Christ: and two pieces of the Spirit’s work, besides comforting, are here expressed.

He shall teach you all things; he shall more fully explain to you all things. Three of the apostles themselves had already in this chapter discovered great degrees of ignorance as to the doctrine of the Trinity, Christ’s union or oneness with his Father, &c. You shall not be left (saith our Saviour) in this ignorance; for when the Holy Spirit shall come, he shall more fully and perfectly instruct you in all things, in which I have already instructed you, and which are necessary for you to know in order to your eternal happiness.

And bring all things to your remembrance; whatsoever I have said unto you; and shall bring to your remembrance the things I have taught you, so as you shall more fully and clearly understand them; and though you may have forgotten them, yet they shall by the Holy Spirit be revived in your memories; so as they shall not be like water spilt on the ground, which cannot again be gathered up, but like seed sown in the earth; which, though it may at present rot, and die under the clods, or at least not spring up, yet it shall spring up, and bring forth desired fruit. It is one great work of the Holy Spirit, to bring the revelations of holy writ to our remembrance, and withal to clear to us the sense of them, and confirm our faith in them, and chiefly quicken us to practise what is our duty: but it is to be observed, that the Spirit doth not make revelations of new notions; it only brings to our remembrance what Christ hath said, and further revealeth what was before in the word revealed, though possibly particular persons were ignorant of such revelations of the word: so things may be new, and newly revealed to us, which in themselves are not so. There are no new truths, but particular persons may have new discoveries of old truth, which they had before misapprehensions of.” (2)

Spirit of the Lord, Rest, Wisdom, Understanding, Counsel, Might, Knowledge, Fear

Scriptural Source:

“And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.” (Isaiah 11:2)

Exposition; from the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary we learn:

“Spirit of the Lord—Jehovah. The Spirit by which the prophets spake: for Messiah was to be a Prophet (Isa 61:1; De 18:15, 18). Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are specified, to imply that the perfection of them was to be in Him. Compare "the seven Spirits" (Re 1:4), that is, the Holy Ghost in His perfect fulness: seven being the sacred number. The prophets had only a portion out of the "fulness" in the Son of God (Joh 1:16; 3:34; Col 1:19).

rest—permanently; not merely come upon Him (Nu 11:25, 26).

wisdom— (1Co 1:30; Eph 1:17; Col 2:3).

understanding—coupled with "wisdom," being its fruit. Discernment and discrimination (Mt 22:18; Joh 2:25).

counsel … might—the faculty of forming counsels, and that of executing them (Isa 28:29). Counsellor (Isa 9:6).

knowledge—of the deep things of God (Mt 11:27). The knowledge of Him gives us true knowledge (Eph 1:17).

fear of the Lord—reverential, obedient fear. The first step towards true "knowledge" (Job 28:28; Ps 111:10).” (3)

Eternal Spirit

Scriptural Source:

“How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?” (Hebrews 9:14)

Exposition; from Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible we learn:

“How much more shall the blood of Christ, which is not the blood of a mere man, but the blood of the Son of God; and the argument is from the lesser to the greater; that if the ashes of the burnt heifer, which was a type of Christ in his sufferings, mixed with water, typically sanctified to the purifying of men externally, in a ceremonial way, then much more virtue must there be in the blood of Christ, to cleanse the soul inwardly:

who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God; Christ is a priest, and the sacrifice he has offend up is "himself"; not his divine nature, but his human nature, soul and body, as in union with his divine person; which gives his sacrifice the preference to all others; and is the reason of its virtue and efficacy, and is expressive of his great love to man: and this sacrifice was offered up "to God", against whom his people had sinned, and whose justice must be satisfied, and which is of a sweet smelling savour to him; besides, he called him to this work, and engaged him in it, and is well pleased with this offering, as he must needs be, since it is offered up "without spot"; which expresses the purity of Christ's nature and sacrifice, and the perfection of it, which is such, that no fault can be found in it by the justice of God; and hence, the saints, for whom it is offered, are unblamable and irreprovable, There is an allusion in the clause, both to the priests and to their sacrifices, which were neither of them to have any spot or blemish on them; and this unblemished sacrifice was offered unto God by Christ, through the eternal Spirit; not the human soul of Christ; for though that is a spirit, yet not eternal, and besides, was a part of the sacrifice; but rather the divine nature of Christ, which is a spirit, and may be so called in distinction from the flesh, or human nature, as it sometimes is, and this is eternal; it was from everlasting, as well as is to everlasting; and this supported him under all his sufferings, and carried him through them, and put virtue unto them; and Christ was a priest, in the divine, as well as human nature: though by it may be better understood "the Holy Ghost"; and so the Vulgate Latin version reads, and also several copies; since the divine nature rather acts by the human nature, than the human nature by the divine; and Christ is often said to do such and such things by the Holy Spirit; and as the Holy Ghost formed and filled the human nature of Christ, so he assisted and supported it under sufferings. This whole clause is inserted by way of parenthesis, showing the efficacy of Christ's blood, and from whence it is:

to purge your conscience from dead works; that is, "from the works of sin", as the Ethiopic version renders it; which are performed by dead men, separate and alienated from the life of God, are the cause of the death of the soul, and expose to eternal death, and are like dead carcasses, nauseous and infectious; and even duties themselves, performed without faith and love, are dead works; nor can they procure life, and being depended on, issue in death; and even the works of believers themselves are sometimes performed in a very lifeless manner, and are attended with sin and pollution, and need purging: the allusion is to the pollution by the touch of dead bodies; and there may be some respect to the sacrifices of slain beasts, after the sacrifice and death of Christ, by believing Jews, who were sticklers for the ceremonies of the law, and thereby contracted guilt; but immoralities are chiefly designed, and with these the conscience of man is defiled; and nothing short of the blood of Christ can remove the pollution of sin; as that being shed procures atonement, and so purges away the guilt of sin, or makes reconciliation for it, so being sprinkled on the conscience by the Spirit of God, it speaks peace and pardon, and pacifies and purges it, and removes every incumbrance from it: the Alexandrian copy, the Vulgate Latin, and Syriac versions, read, "our conscience". The end and use of such purgation is, "to serve the living God"; so called to distinguish him from the idols of the Gentiles, and in opposition to dead works; and because he has life in himself, essentially and independently, and is the author and giver of life to others; and it is but the reasonable service of his people, to present their souls and bodies as a living sacrifice to him; and who ought to serve him in a lively manner, in faith, and with fervency, and not with a slavish, but a godly filial fear; and one that has his conscience purged by the blood of Christ, and is sensibly impressed with a discovery of pardoning grace, is in the best capacity for such service. The Alexandrian copy reads, "the living and true God.” (4)


Scriptural Source:

“But Peter said, ‘Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back for yourself part of the proceeds of the land? While it remained unsold, did it not remain your own? And after it was sold, was it not at your disposal? Why is it that you have contrived this deed in your heart? You have not lied to man but to God.’” (Acts 5:3, 4)

Exposition; from Barnes' Notes on the Bible we learn:

“But unto God - It has been "particularly" and "eminently" against God. This is true, because:

(1) He had professedly "devoted" it to God. The act, therefore, had express and direct reference to him.

(2) it was an attempt to deceive him. It implied the belief of Ananias that God would not detect the crime, or see the motives of the heart.

(3) it is the prerogative of God to judge of sincerity and hypocrisy; and this was a case, therefore, which came under his special notice. Compare Psalm 139:1-4. The word "God" here is evidently used in its plain and obvious sense as denoting the "supreme divinity," and the use of the word here shows that the Holy Spirit is "divine." The whole passage demonstrates, therefore, one of the important doctrines of the Christian religion, that the Holy Spirit is distinct from the Father and the Son, and yet is divine.” (5)

Holy Spirit

Scriptural Sources:

“In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise.” (Ephesians 1:13)

Exposition; from Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers we learn:

“Ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise.—This word “sealed” is found in exactly the same connection in 2Corinthians 1:22. The original idea of this sealing (which, it should be observed, is not of documents, but of men) is best seen in the “sealing of the servants of God in their foreheads,” in Revelation 7:3-8. In that passage, and in the passage of Ezekiel which it recalls (Ezekiel 9:4), the sealing is simply an outward badge, to be at once a pledge and means of safety amidst the destruction coming on the earth. In like sense, circumcision appears to be called “a seal” of previously existing righteousness of faith, in Romans 4:11; and the conversion of the Corinthians “a seal” of St. Paul’s apostleship, in 1Corinthians 9:2. (Comp. also John 3:33; Romans 15:28; 2Timothy 2:19.) But the word is used in a deeper sense whenever it is connected with the gift of the Holy Spirit. Then it corresponds to the “circumcision not made with hands” (Romans 2:29; Colossians 2:11); it has the character of a sacrament, and is not a mere badge, but a true means of grace. In this connection we read first of our Lord, “Him God the Father sealed” (John 6:27), with a clear reference to the outpouring of the Holy Spirit at His baptism (comp. John 1:33; John 5:37; John 10:33); next of His people (as here, in Ephesians 4:30, and in 2Corinthians 1:22) as being, like Himself, baptised with the Holy Ghost. In this passage the very title given to the Spirit is significant. He is called (in the curious order of the original) “the Spirit of the Promise, the Holy One.” “The promise” is clearly the promise in the Old Testament (as in Jeremiah 31:31-34; Joel 2:28-32) of the outpouring of the Spirit on all God’s people in “the latter days.” The emphatic position of the epithet “Holy One” seems to point to the effect of His indwelling in the actual sanctification of the soul thus sealed. From this passage was probably derived the ecclesiastical application of the name “seal” to the sacrament of baptism, which is undoubtedly made the seal of conversion in Acts 2:38.” (6)

Power of the Highest

Scriptural Source:

“And the angel answered her, “The Holy Spirit [Πνεῦμα (Pneuma), Ἅγιον (Hagion)] will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy—the Son of God.” (Luke 1:35)

Exposition; from Calvin’s Commentary on Luke we learn:

“The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee The angel does not explain the manner, so as to satisfy curiosity, which there was no necessity for doing. He only leads the virgin to contemplate the power of the Holy Spirit, and to surrender herself silently and calmly to his guidance. The word epeleusetai, shall come upon, denotes that this would be an extraordinary work, in which natural means have no place. The next clause is added by way of exposition, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: for the Spirit may be regarded as the essential power of God, whose energy is manifested and exerted in the entire government of the world, as well as in miraculous events. There is an elegant metaphor in the word episkiasei, overshadow. The power of God, by which he guards and protects his own people, is frequently compared in Scripture to a shadow, (Psalm 17:8; Psalm 57:1; Psalm 91:1.) But it appears to have another and peculiar meaning in this passage. The operation of the Spirit would be secret, as if an intervening cloud did not permit it to be beheld by the eyes of men. Now, as God, in performing miracles, withholds from us the manner of his proceedings, so what he chooses to conceal from us ought to be viewed, on our part, with seriousness and adoration.” (7)

Spirit of Adoption

Scriptural Source:

“For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.” (Romans 8:15)

Exposition; from the notes in Geneva Study Bible we learn:

“For ye have not received the {p} spirit of bondage again {q} to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of {r} adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

He declares and expounds (as an aside) in these two verses by what right this name, to be called the children of God, is given to the believers: and it is because, he says, they have received the grace of the gospel, in which God shows himself, not (as before in the proclaiming of the law) terrible and fearful, but a most gentle and loving Father in Christ, so that with great boldness we call him Father, the Holy Spirit sealing this adoption in our hearts by faith.

(p) By the Spirit is meant the Holy Spirit whom we are said to receive, when he works in our minds.

(q) Which fear the Spirit stirred up in our minds by the preaching of the law.

(r) Who seals our adoption in our minds, and therefore opens our mouths.” (8)

Spirit of Christ

Scriptural Source:

“Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow.” (1 Peter 1:11)

Exposition; from Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary we learn:

“Jesus Christ was the main subject of the prophets' studies. Their inquiry into the sufferings of Christ and the glories that should follow, would lead to a view of the whole gospel, the sum whereof is, That Christ Jesus was delivered for our offences, and raised again for our justification. God is pleased to answer our necessities rather than our requests. The doctrine of the prophets, and that of the apostles, exactly agree, as coming from the same Spirit of God. The gospel is the ministration of the Spirit; its success depends upon his operation and blessing. Let us then search diligently those Scriptures which contain the doctrines of salvation.” (9)

Spirit of Grace

Scriptural Sources:

“Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden underfoot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?” (Hebrews 10:29)

Exposition, from New Testament Commentary on Hebrews by Simon J. Kistemaker we learn:

“Once again the author of Hebrews employs the device of contrast. He sets the times of the old covenant over against those of the new covenant. He compares the penalty of physical death with the much more severe sentence of spiritual death. And he differentiates between rejecting the law of Moses and despising the Son of God and the Spirit of God. He asks the reader to reflect on this difference.

  The sinner who rebels against God in the times of the new covenant rejects the person of Christ, the work of Christ, and the person of the Holy Spirit. And thus he has committed the unpardonable sin. The writer delineates this sin in three parts.

  a. Person of the Son of God. Note that the author again employs the title of Christ, which he used extensively at the beginning of the Epistle to the Hebrews. The title is the highest accorded to Christ. No one can be compared to this Son, for he excels all: angels, Moses, Aaron, and Melchizedek.

  What does the sinner do? He tramples under foot this Son of God. To trample something under foot is what we do when we get rid of a bothersome insect. Thus the sinner figuratively takes the exalted Son of God and grinds him into the dirt.

  b. Work of the Son of God. The second part is even more significant because it relates to the meaning and purpose of the new covenant. Jesus inaugurated this covenant by his blood to cleanse his people and sanctify them (Matt. 26:28 and parallels).

  Jesus shed his precious blood and paid the supreme sacrifice. But this shed blood means nothing to the rebellious sinner. He regards Jesus’ blood as the blood of any other human being and Jesus’ death as that of any other mortal. He considers Jesus to be a mere man whose death has no significance and whose redemptive work has no value.

  The author contrasts the defiant sinner within the Israelite community with the Christian who has abandoned the church; his point is that ignorance cannot be used as an excuse. The sinner knows the Christian faith, for he was sanctified by the blood of the covenant. That is, at one time he professed his faith in Christ, listened to the preaching of the Word of God, and partook of the holy elements when he celebrated the Lord’s Supper. But his faith was not an internal fulfillment. In word and deed he now repudiates his relationship to Christ’s work. He breaks with his past.

  c. Person of the Holy Spirit. The third clause in the description of the unpardonable sin relates to insulting the Spirit of grace (Matt. 12:32; Mark 3:29). The sinner intentionally insults the person of the Holy Spirit. In his conduct, the sinner points out the stark contrast between insults hurled at the Holy Spirit and grace granted by the Holy Spirit. The Spirit is the source of grace (Zech. 12:10). Insulting the third person of the Trinity is the height of sin that cannot be forgiven. Says John Calvin, “To treat him with scorn, by whom we are endowed with so many benefits, is an impiety extremely wicked.” God himself confronts the sinner and metes out punishment.” (10)

Spirit of Truth

Scriptural Sources:

“But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me.”  (John 15:26)

Exposition, from the New Testament Commentary on John by William Hendriksen we learn:

“Jesus has been speaking about the hatred which the disciples will have to endure from the side of the world, which hates the Father and the Son. Hence, it is not surprising that in this connection he again comforts these men by reminding them of his previous promise (see on 14:16, 17, 26) with respect to the coming of the Spirit, the Helper. Jesus himself will send this Helper. He will be sent from the Father. Essentially, though with difference in emphasis, this is the same as saying: “I will request the Father, and he will give you another Helper” (14:16); “the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name” (14:26). Here in 15:26 the emphasis is on the activity of the Son in the sending of the Spirit, and on the fact that this Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father. The sending of the Spirit was a matter of the future. Pentecost had not yet arrived. Hence, the future tense is used: “I will send.” The procession was taking place at the very moment when Jesus was speaking (if matters which in reality transcend time may be viewed from the aspect of time); hence, the present tense is used. Were we to say, “The fact that 15:26 states that the Son will send the Spirit proves that the Father does not send him,” we would be wrong (see 14:26). Thus also, were we to say, “The fact that 15:26 states that the Spirit proceeds from the Father proves that he does not proceed from the Son,” we would be wrong (see Acts 5:9; Rom. 8:9; 2 Cor. 3:17; Gal. 4:6; Phil. 1:19; 1 Pet. 1:11; where the Spirit is called the Spirit of Christ). After all, is it so strange that Jesus, speaking as Mediator between God and man, himself man, would, during his period of humiliation, speak of the Spirit as proceeding from The Father?

  The Holy Spirit is here called the Spirit of truth, just as in 14:17; see on that passage. That Spirit will testify (see on 1:7, 8). In the midst of the wicked world he will testify against the world (16:8, 9). In the midst of mankind he will bear witness concerning mankind’s need. In the midst of the Church he will comfort the Church. The sphere of his testimony must not be restricted. Whenever a true servant of God bears witness against the world, this witness is the work of the Spirit. Whenever a simple believer, by word and example, draws others to Christ, this too is the work of the Spirit. That Spirit always testifies in connection with the Word, the Word of Christ (14:26; 16:14, 15). By and large, the world that is openly hostile to Christ will not receive him (14:17). Nevertheless, there are exceptions. From among those who today are openly hostile some will be drawn. They will be transferred from the kingdom of darkness to that of everlasting light. Was there ever a fiercer persecutor than Saul (or Paul) of Tarsus? The Spirit was going to change him (and others like him) to become a zealous missionary for Christ! See also on 16:7–11.” (11)

Spirit of Revelation

Scriptural Source:

“That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him.” (Ephesians 1:17)

Exposition, from Bengel's Gnomen we learn:

Ἵνα, that) A subject of prayer for true Christians.—ὁ πατὴρ τῆς δόξης, the Father of glory) That infinite glory, which shines in the face of Christ; nay, more, [the Father] of the glory, which is the Son of God Himself; by whom also the glorious inheritance will become ours, Ephesians 1:18.—Πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως, the Spirit of wisdom and revelation) The same Spirit, who is the Spirit of promise, is, in the progress of believers, also the Spirit of wisdom and revelation. Wisdom works wisdom in us; revelation knowledge.—ἐν, in) Construe with may give.—αὐτοῦ, of Him) God.” (12)

Spirit of the Living God

Scriptural Source:

“Forasmuch as ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart.” (2 Corinthians 3:3)

Exposition; from the Expositor's Greek Testament we learn:

“φανερούμενοι ὅτι ἐστὲ κ.τ.λ.: being made manifest that ye are an epistle of Christ (sc., written by Christ), ministered by us (the Apostle conceiving of himself as his Master’s amanuensis).—ἐγγεγραμμένη οὐ μέλανι κ.τ.λ.: written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone but in tables that are hearts of flesh. This “writing” which the Corinthians exhibit is no writing with ink on a papyrus roll, but is the mystical imprint of the Divine Spirit in their hearts, conveyed through Paul’s ministrations; cf. Jeremiah 31:33, Proverbs 7:3. And this leads him to think of the ancient “writing” of the Law by the “finger of God” on the Twelve Tables, and to contrast it with this epistle of Christ on tables that are not of stone but are “hearts of flesh” (see reff.). For σάρκινος (cf. λίθινος, ὀστράκινος) see on 2 Corinthians 1:12 above.” (13)

Spirit of the Son

Scriptural Source:

“And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.” (Galatians 4:6)

Exposition; from Meyer's NT Commentary we learn:

“A confirmation of the reality of this reception of sonship from the experience of the readers; for the ἐστέ, which, after the foregoing more general statement, now comes in with its individual application (comp. Galatians 3:26), does not refer to the Galatians as Gentile Christians only (Hofmann), any more than in Galatians 3:26-29.

ὅτι] is taken by most expositors, following the Vulgate, as quoniam (Luther, Castalio, Beza, Calvin, Grotius, Bengel, Semler, Morus, Rosenmüller, Paulus, Olshausen, Baumgarten-Crusius, de Wette, Baur, Hilgenfeld, Ewald, and others). And this interpretation (on ὅτι, because, at the beginning of the sentence, comp. 1 Corinthians 12:15; John 20:29; John 15:19) is the most simple, natural, and correct; the emphasis is laid on υἱοί, which is therefore placed at the end: but because ye are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son, etc. He would not have done this, if ye had not (through the υἱοθεσία) been υἱοί; thus the reception of the Spirit is the experimental and practical divine testimony to the sonship. If not sons of God, ye would not be the recipients of the Spirit of His Son. The Spirit is the seal of the sonship, into which they had entered through faith—the divine σημεῖον attesting and confirming it; comp. Romans 8:16. See also Weiss, bibl. Theol. p. 340.” (14)

Spirit of the Father

Scriptural Source:

“For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.” (Matthew 10:20)

Exposition; from the Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges we learn:

“The Spirit of your Father: The Christian “apologist” shall not stand alone. The same Spirit instructs him which inspires the universal Church. St Paul experienced this consolation: “At my first answer no man stood with me.… notwithstanding the Lord stood with me and strengthened me.” 2 Timothy 4:16-17.” (15)


Scriptural Source:

“That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.” (John 3:6)    

Exposition; from Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament we learn:

“That which hath been born of the flesh is flesh, and that which hath been born of the Spirit is spirit. In the last verse was implied the law that like is produced from like, since the pure and spiritual members of God’s kingdom must be born of water and spirit. Here this law is expressly stated. Flesh produces flesh. Spirit produces spirit. Thus the necessity of a new birth is enforced, and the ‘cannot’ of John 3:3 explained. It is not easy to say whether ‘flesh,’ as here used, definitely indicates the sinful principles of human nature, or only that which is outward, material, not spiritual but merely natural. The latter seems more likely, both from the context (where the contrast is between the natural and the spiritual birth) and from John’s usage elsewhere. Though the word occurs as many as thirteen times in this Gospel (chap. John 1:13-14, John 6:51-52, etc., John 8:15, John 17:2), in no passage does it express the thought of sinfulness, as it does in Paul’s Epistles and in 1 John 2:16. Another difficulty meets us in the second clause. Are we to read ‘born of the Spirit’ or ‘of the spirit’? Is the reference to the Holy Spirit Himself, who imparts the principle of the new life, or to the principle which He imparts,-the principle just spoken of in John 3:5, ‘of water and spirit’ It is hard to say, and the difference in meaning is extremely small; but when we consider the analogy of the two clauses, the latter seems more likely.—There is no reference here to ‘water;’ but, as we have seen, the water has reference to the past alone,-the state which gives place to the new life. To speak of this would be beside the point of the verse now before us, which teaches that the spiritual life of the kingdom of God can only come from the new spiritual principle.”  (16)


1.      H. D. M. Spence and Joseph S. Exell, The Pulpit Commentary, Ezra, Nehemiah Esther, Job, Vol. 7., (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans Publishing Company reprint 1978), p. 534.

2.      Matthew Poole, Matthew Poole's Commentary on the Holy Bible, Vol. 3, (Peabody, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publishers, 1985), p. 357.

3.      Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1977) p. 521.

4.      John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments, Hebrews, 9 Volumes, John, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, pp. 169-171.

5.      Albert Barnes, THE AGES DIGITAL LIBRARYCOMMENTARY, Barnes’ Notes on the Bible, Acts, Volume 5, p. 1525.

6.      Charles John Ellicott, Bible Commentary for English Reader, Ephesians, Vol. VIII., (London, England, Cassell and Company), p. 19.

7.      John Calvin, Calvin's Commentaries, Luke, Vol. II., (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House Reprinted 1979), p. 42.

8.      Geneva Study Bible, (Tolle Lege Press, White Hall, West Virginia), p. 1148.

9.      Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary, I Peter, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), p. 2038.

10.  Simon J. Kistemaker, New Testament Commentary, Hebrews, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House, 1986), pp. 294, 295.

11.  William Hendriksen, New Testament Commentary, John, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House, 1984), pp. 314, 315.

12.  D. Joh. Alberti Bengelii Gnomon Novi Testamenti, (Tubingae, sumtibus Ludov. Frid. Fues, Harvard University), pp. 744, 745.

13.  William Robertson Nicoll, Expositor's Greek Testament, 2 Corinthians, Study Light.Org Online resource.

14.  Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, Meyer's NT Commentary, Galatians, Study Light.Org Online resource.

15.  Contributors, John James Stewart Perowne, Joseph Armitage Robinson, Frederic Henry Chase, Reginald St. John Parry Cambridge, Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges, Matthew, (Ithaca, NY, Cornell University), p. 165.

16.  Philip Schaff, Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament, John, Vol. II, (Book digitized by Google from the library of Harvard University and uploaded to the Internet Archive), p. 5.

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks. Available at:

Westminster Confession, Chapter 2 - Of God, and of the Holy Trinity.

Section 1.) There is but one only(1) living and true God,(2) who is infinite in being and perfection,(3) a most pure spirit,(4)invisible,(5) without body, parts,(6) or passions;(7) immutable,(8) immense,(9) eternal,(10) incomprehensible,(11) almighty,(12)most wise,(13) most holy,(14) most free,(15) most absolute,(16) working all things according to the counsel of His own immutable and most righteous will,(17) for His own glory;(18) most loving,(19) gracious, merciful, long-suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin,(20) the rewarder of them that diligently seek Him;(21) and withal, most just, and terrible in His judgments;(22) hating all sin,(23) and who will by no means clear the guilty.(24)


(1) Dt 6:41Co 8:4,6 
1Th 1:9Jer 10:10 
Job 11:7,8,9Job 26:14 
 Jn 4:24 
1Ti 1:17 
Dt 4:15,16Jn 4:24Lk 24:39 
Ac 14:11,15 
Jas 1:17Mal 3:6 
1Ki 8:27Jer 23:23,24 
Ps 90:2;1Ti 1:17 
Ps 145:3 
Ge 17:1Rev 4:8 
Ro 16:27 
Isa 6:3Rev 4:8 
Ps 15:3 
Ex 3:14 
 Eph 1:11 
 Pr 16:4
Ro 11:36 
1Jn 4:8,16 
Ex 34:6,7 
 Heb 11:6 
Ne 9:32,33 
Ps 5:5,6 
Nah. 1:2,3Ex 34:7


Section 2.) God hath all life,(1) glory,(2) goodness,(3) blessedness,(4) in and of Himself; and is alone in and unto Himself all-sufficient, not standing in need of any creatures which He hath made,(5) not deriving any glory from them,(6) but only manifesting His own glory in, by, unto, and upon them: He is the alone fountain of all being, of whom, through whom, and to whom are all things,(7) and hath most sovereign dominion over them, to do by them, for them, or upon them whatsoever Himself pleaseth.(8) In His sight all things are open and manifest;(9) His knowledge is infinite, infallible, and independent upon the creature,(10) so as nothing is to Him contingent, or uncertain.(11) He is most holy in all His counsels, in all His works, and in all His commands.(12) To Him is due from angels and men, and every other creature, whatsoever worship, service, or obedience He is pleased to require of them.(13)


(1) Jn 5:26 
Ac 7:2 
Ps 119:68 
1Ti 6:15Ro 9:5 
Ac 17:24,25 
Job 22:2,3 
Ro 11:36 
Rev 4:111Ti 6:15Da 4:25,35 
 Heb 4:13 
Ro 11:33,34Ps 147:5 
Ac 15:18Eze 11:5 
Ps 145:17 ; Ro 7:12 
Rev 5:12,13,14


Section 3.) In the unity of the Godhead there be three persons, of one substance, power, and eternity; God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.(1) The Father is of none, neither begotten, nor proceeding; the Son is eternally begotten of the Father;(2) the Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son.(3)


(1) 1Jn 5:7Mt 3:16,17Mt 28:192Co 13:14 
 Jn 1:14,
 Jn 15:26
Gal 4:6


“Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost” (Titus 3:5). “To God only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ forever. Amen” (Romans 16:27). “heirs according to the promise” (Galatians 3:28, 29).

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks. Available at: